© Genrikh Altshuller, 1988
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STANDARDS FOR SOLUTION OF INVENTIVE PROBLEMS
Since the initial elaboration of TRIZ it has been clear that a powerful data bank is required which first of all includes typical techniques to eliminate technical contradictions. It has been formed for many years: over 40000 inventions have been analyzed and 40 typical techniques have been revealed (with over 100 sub-techniques).
Physical contradictions (PC) consitute the kernel of technical contradictions. In their essence physical contradictions produce dual requirements to an object: to be movable or fixed, hot or cold etc. No wonder the study of elimination techniques for PC has brought to a conclusion that pair (dual) techniques should exist which are more potent than single ones. The data bank of TRIZ has been added with a list of pair techniques(fragmentation - integration, etc.)
Further it has been revealed that a solution of complicated problems usually is connected with an application of comprehensive techniques (common and pair) and physical effects. Finally, especially potent combinations of techniques and physical effects have been distinguished which have constituted the first yet not numerous group of standards for a solution of inventive problems.
The first standards have been found empirically: some combinatic of techniques and physical effects were of a such frequent practical use and produced so potent solutions that an idea was suggested itself to convert them into standards.
Thus, standards are rules of synthesis and transformation of technical systems directly resulting from laws for development of these systems.
At first the standards were not arranged: they were included into the bank while revealing. Their number increased rapidly: 5, 9, 11, 18, ... . In 1979 the first system was compiled which included 28 standards.
The standards were arranged from the point of the S-Field analysis. The main classes of standards were determined: I) standards on a change of systems (and a change in systems); 2) standards on discovery and measurement of systems (and in systems); 3) standards on application of standards.
By the end of 1984 the majority of TRIZ schools used systems including 54, 59 and 69 standards. The experience has revealed that the standards represent a rather strong tool of TRIZ. A trend has been outlined: the main part of problems should be solved by standards while ARIZ should be mainly used for analysis of non-standard problems and to obtain the information helpful to form new standards. Besides, a hope has appeared that at the further improvement the system of standards will be converted into a prognosis tool for development of technical systems unlike ARIZ.
In 1983-1986 the laws for development of technical systems were intensively studied. By modern concepts the development of systems runs along the line: incomplete S-Field systems - complete S-Fields - complex S-Fields - forced S-Fields - complex-forced S-Fields. An up-transition to the following system level is possible as well as a down-transition to the lower system level in any link of this chain. It has been succeded to reveal some mechanisms realizing this general network: a transition to bi- and poly-systems, convolutions, a tcansition to a micro-level, etc. The new knowledge of the development laws for technical systems has permitted to up-date the structure of the system of standards and add it with new potent standards. Innovations were experimented at seminars in 1984—1986. It was possible to transfer to the system including 76 standards.
Features of the new system:
1. The classification of standards has been brought in compliance with the general network for the development of technical systems: simple S-Fields - complex S-Fields - forced S-Fields -complex-forced S-Fields - transition to over-system and to sub-systems.
2. A number of new standards has been introduced. Some of them are stipulated by deeper knowledge of the development laws for technical systems and prompted by the logic of the system of standards (filling "vacant" cells).
3. A number of typical examples for standards has been increased significantly. Examples supplement the general formula of a standard by practically important details and nuances. With the same purpose 15 training problems have been included into the text of standards.
The standards are destroyers of technical and physical contradictions. The goal is to overcome contradictions or in an emergency to makeshift them. The sense of the standards is to overcome a contradiction, to match incompatible, to realize impossible.
It is of desire that the system of 76 standards will provide an innovator with powerful tools for creative solution of practical production problems.
1. Composition and Decomposition of S-Field systems
1-1. Synthesis of S-Fields
1-2. Decomposition of S-Fields
2. Evolution of S-Field systems
2-1. A transition to integrate S-Fields
2-2. Forcing S-Fields
2-3. Evolution by Coordinating Rhythms
2-4. Complex-Forced S-Fields (F-Fields)
3. Transitions to Supersystem and Microlevel
3-1. Transitions to Bi-system and Poly-system
3-2. Transition to Micro-level
4. Measurement and Detection Standards
4-1. Change Instead of Measurement and Detection
4-2. Synthesis of Measuring Systems
4-3. Forcing of measuring S-Fields
4-4. Transition to Ferromagnetic Measurement Systems
4-5. Evolution of Measuring Systems
5. Helpers (Standards on application on standards)
5-1. Introduction of Substances under Restricted Conditions
5-2. Introduction of Fields under Restricted Conditions
5-3. Use of Phase Transitions
5-4. Use of Physical Effects
5-5. Experimental standards